DOMUNI UNIVERSITAS

Kant: A philosophy of Freedom

Kant: A philosophy of Freedom

According to Gibelin in his Foreword to Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, Freedom is the central theme of Kant’s philosophy. This course will introduce to Kant, centering on Freedom as a key concept to understand his philosophy, in the three spheres defined by the critical project: Metaphysics, Moral and Aesthetics.

ECTS Credits: 6
Professor: Emmanuel Boissieu

 

Content of the course:

STAGE 1. WAS KANT AN AUFKLÄRER ?


I. What was the crisis of the 18th century?
1.1 Man as a minor/man under age
1.2 Superstition
1.3 Human violence
1.4 The quarrels of philosophy
II. Kant’s solutions
2.1 A reflection on the way things stand
2.2 A task of reason
2.3 A task of freedom
2.4 A political solution
2.5 The creation of a state of perpetual peace
III. In what way does the Kantian solution differ from the French Enlightenment?
3.1 The question of morality
3.2 Respect for authority
3.3 The question of religion
3.4 Progress from a practical point of view
Conclusion


STAGE 2. FREEDOM AND METAPHYSICS


I. In what way does the Metaphysic of Kant overthrow Dogmatism?
1.1 "Metaphysics as science"
1.2 The Copernican Revolution
II. An overthrow of the relationship to the absolute
2.1 Proofs for the existence of God
2.2 Speculative theology
2.3 The refutation of the proofs for the existence of God
2.4 A regulative ideal
III. The problem of freedom
3.1 An antimony of pure reason
3.2 The two proofs
3.3 A possible conciliation
IV. The revision of metaphysics
4.1 A « mathematical philosophy »
4.2 Skepticism
Conclusion


STAGE 3. PRACTICAL FREEDOM


I. Freedom and moral law
1.1 A psychological definition of freedom
1.2 Freedom and moral law
1.3 The discovery of autonomy
1.4 A definition of freedom
1.5 The heteronomy of desire
1.6 A new definition of values
II. Freedom and motive
2.1 The moralities of feeling
2.2 The mystery of reason
2.3 The specific case of respect
2.4 The question of love
III. Freedom and the sovereign good
3.1 The sovereign good
3.2 Classical moralities
3.3 A not impossible union
IV. The postulates of practical reason
4.1 The immortality of the soul
4.2 The existence of God
4.3 Freedom
4.4 From freedom…
V. The critique of Kantian morality
5.1 The question of the promise
5.2 A new dialectic of autonomy/heteronomy
5.3 A new definition of love
Conclusion


STAGE 4. THE FACULTY OF JUDGMENT: BETWEEN NATURE AND FREEDOM


I. Mediation between nature and freedom
1.1 Between the concept of understanding and the Idea of Reason
1.2 Between the power to know and the power to desire
1.3 Between understanding and practical law
1.4 A necessary mediation
II. The beautiful and morality
2.1 A distinction between beautiful and good
2.2 The beautiful and the sense of morality
2.3 Natural beauty and morality
2.4 The question of genius
2.5 The beautiful as symbol of morality
III. The sublime and morality
3.1 The definition of the sublime
3.2 Mathematical sublime and morality
3.3 Dynamic sublime and morality
3.4 Moral good and the sublime
IV. Law as mediation
4.1 A dual finality
4.2 Law and the finality of nature
4.3 Law and aesthetics
V. Moral finality and theology
5.1 Faith in God
5.2 An irresistible goal of human nature
5.3 A limitation of this faith
5.4 The interest of this limitation
Conclusion


STAGE 5. RELIGION AND FREEDOM


I. Freedom and evil
1.1 A propensity to evil
1.2 Is man evil by nature?
1.3 The origin of evil
II. Good and Evil
2.1 A revolution in the way of thinking
2.2 The personification of the battle
2.3 Justification
III. Church and morality
3.1 An ethical civil society
3.2 Church and State
3.3 The Church as the People of God
3.4 Church invisible/Church visible
IV. Pure religion / Revealed religion
4.1 The distinction between the two forms of religion
4.2 The possibility of revelation
4.3 Mysteries
4.4 Tutored faith
V. Moral religion / Cult religion
5.1 The two forms of religion
5.2 Christianity, a moral religion
5.3 The condemnation of cult religion
VI. A philosophical critique of Kant
6.1 A philosophy marked by Christianity
6.2 The death of God
6.3 A new attempt
6.4 A question concerning Judaism
Conclusion


STAGE 6. CONCLUSION: FREEDOM - A KEY TO KANTIAN PHILOSOPHY


I. Freedom as the keystone of the Kantian system
1.1 Practical interest/theoretical interest
1.2 Freedom and temporality
1.3 The primacy of practical reason
II. Philosophy and freedom
2.1 The origin of philosophy
2.2 Philosophy as a striving towards wisdom
2.3 From philosophy to doing philosophy
III. A progress of freedom within history
3.1 The affirmation of progress
3.2 The role of law
3.3 The role of Christ
3.4 The French Revolution
Conclusion